Boilers, it’s Types and 3 Major Differences between Horizontal and Vertical Boilers

A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or any other fluid is heated to generate steam or vapour. The steam generated is utilized for industrial as well as domestic purposes. The industries use boilers for various reasons like generating steam power, heating heavy fuel oils in marines, and cooking. 

Based on the boiler axis position there are two types of boilers, named Horizontal boiler and Vertical boiler.

Fuels mainly preferred for heating the fluid are coal, oil, wood, and natural gas. Various fuel alternatives are also available for heating the fluid.

Classification and examples of Horizontal Boilers and Vertical Boilers

Both the Horizontal and Vertical Boilers are further primarily classified into the fire-tube boiler and water-tube boiler. In a fire-tube boiler combustion products are sent through the tube and water surrounds the tube. While in the water-tube boiler water remains in the tube and fuel surrounds the tube.

Lancashire Boiler, Locomotive Boiler, and Babcock and Wilcox Boiler are Horizontal Boilers. Cochran Boiler is a type of Vertical Boiler

Precitech offers both Horizontal Steam Boiler and Vertical Steam Boiler

Explore the wide range of Precitech’s boilers here!

Precitech Boilers

3 Major Differences between Vertical and Horizontal Boiler

  1. The basic difference is regarding the axis of the shell which is kept vertical in a vertical boiler while horizontal in a Horizontal boiler. Therefore, both are used according to the space availability in the industry.
  2. The characteristic of a vertical boiler is that the combustion part uses a double grate combustor. The heating and boosting part is slower than the horizontal boiler.
  3. The efficiency of a vertical boiler is less compared to the horizontal one.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Vertical and Horizontal Boiler

A Vertical Boiler can be used when there is a space constraint. As the axis of the boiler is kept vertical the space occupied is less. It is easy to maintain a water level as water is at the top of the firebox. The maintenance of vertical boilers is easier and it works on low power. So, they are perfect for small power plants.

However, if there are impurities in the water then it sediments at the bottom of the boiler and prevents water from heating. The land coverage area of the boiler is less but it requires height. Thus, a vertical boiler can’t be used if height is a constraint.

Horizontal Boilers have a large capacity compared to vertical boilers and they can handle more pressure in comparison to Vertical Boilers. The efficiency of these boilers are also more compared to the vertical ones.

It requires a large surface area for installation, has a high maintenance cost, and is complex in design. Corrosion and scale formation is more prevalent in locomotive boilers, a type of horizontal boiler. 

Major Applications of Horizontal Boilers and Vertical Boilers

Earlier Vertical Boilers were used in Railway Locomotive steam lorries. Over time, vertical boilers became significant in the Marine Industry and Stationery Industries for process and space heating. 

Horizontal boilers are frequently used in the Hotel Industry. These boilers are also found in Hospitals, Chemical Plants, and Food-Processing Industries. 

At Precitech you can choose a Vertical Steam Boiler or a Horizontal Steam Boiler according to your industry needs with a capacity range between 5kg/hr to 20 tons/hr. Different types of fuel options are also available like wood, coal, lignite, diesel, and biogas.  

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